The behavioural development of Yi children is measured by a 5-item self-designed teacher-reported instrument. Teachers were asked to identify and rate problematic behaviours in Yi students; hence, a lower score in behavioural development here means a better outcome. As findings are counter-intuitive, we decide to reserve code this outcome variable, so that a higher score represents a more desirable behavioural outcome. For instrument information, please refer to the data access and instrument Section in the About the Project Page.
Using data of Yi children in cohort 1 (obtained from wave 1 to wave 4, i.e., between the year 2007 and 2009), we find that their behavioural outcome demonstrates positive change over time.
Improvement in Behavioural Outcome and Contributing Factors 行為健康的改善和相關的因素
Longitudinal analysis using multilevel modelling shows a statistically significant improvement in the behavioural outcome of Yi children from wave 1 to 4. We observe an average of 0.26 units of increase in behavioural scoring overtime (b=0.26, t=6.64).
The following discusses the regression findings on the effect of each factor, measured at wave 1, on the behavioural outcome:
Relationship Quality. Yi children who share a better relationship with their adopters show relatively better behavioural outcome (b=0.30, t=2.40), while relationships with other family members (i.e., father/late father, mother/late mother, and siblings) do not have an impact. Results support our conceptualization that relationship with caregivers will affect the behavioural outcome of Yi children.
Maternal and Paternal Status. Yi children with fathers who have disappeared show a significantly lower behavioural score than those whose father had passed away (b=-1.29, t=-2.88). These children demonstrate a higher level of externalising behaviours: Having a father that disappear on them means being abandoned while losing a father to death is an unfortunate event. Hence, it makes sense that Yi children with disappearing father will score lower on their behavioural health than those who have experienced paternal death. On the other hand, maternal status does not have an effect.
Ethnic and Cultural Awareness. Yi children with various levels of ethnic and cultural awareness do not show any difference in their behavioural outcomes.
Number of Siblings. Number of siblings is not associated with the behavioural outcomes of Yi children.
Demographics. Female Yi children tend to show better behavioural scoring than their male counterparts (b=0.41, t=1.92). Such finding is consistent with the prevailing literature, which suggests that boys are inclined to display higher levels of externalising behaviours than girls. Age is not a significant predictor of behavioural outcome.