Ethnic and Cultural Awareness Development民族和文化意識
Using data of Yi children in cohort 2 (obtained from wave 7 to wave 9, i.e., between the year 2011 and 2015), we find that their awareness on their ethnicity and culture drop over time.
Ethnic and cultural awareness is measured by the 12-item Phinney’s Ethnic Identity Development Scale tapping into Yi children’s willingness to explore their own culture and their sense of belonging to their ethnic group. For more information, please refer to the data access and instrument Section in the About the Project Page.
Ethnic and cultural awareness is essential because research shows that it is associated with the well-being of children, in particular, psychosocial, behavioural and educational outcomes. Having a good understanding of own ethnicity in relation to other ethnic groups also leads to greater inter-cultural acceptances, thus, facilitate the overall cohesiveness of society.
The graph below shows the change in Yi children’s ethnic and cultural awareness over time. The children’s ethnic and cultural awareness show a slight decrease from wave 7 to 8 and then an increase in the last wave. In general, a slight decline is found using regression analysis. The drop in their awareness suggests that additional programs have to be designed to help Yi children understand their ethnicity and culture.
研究採用了Phinney的民族認知發展量表（Ethnic Identity Development Scale，包括十二個範疇）量度彝童的民族和文化意識，了解他們有多願意探尋自己族群文化和對民族的歸屬感。如欲獲取更多量表的資訊，請參閱本頁面的「數據與量表」欄目。
Change in Yi children’s Ethnic and Cultural Awareness Overtime and Contributing Factors 彝童民族和文化意識隨時間的改變和相關的因素
Longitudinal analysis using multilevel modelling shows a statistically significant decrease in the ethnic and cultural awareness of Yi children from wave 7 to 9. We observe an average of 1.38 unit of decline in their ethnic and cultural awareness scores across each time wave (b=-1.38, t=-6.51). The drop may be related to Han oriented curriculum adopted by local community school. Over time, Yi children sense of ethnicity may be weakened as due to lack of socialisation opportunity. While it is vital to teach Yi children about Han traditions, it is also crucial to celebrate their Yi origins for their well-being as well as the ethnic integration.
Referring back to Phinney’s Ethnic Identity Development Theory, which postulates that ethnic and cultural awareness is affected by socialisation experiences; here, we examine the effect of each relationship factors, collected at wave 7, on the development of Yi children’s ethnic and cultural awareness over time. Baseline information was used to predict Yi children’s ethnic and cultural awareness development.
Familial Relationship Quality. Yi children who share a better relationship with their fathers/late fathers (b=1.57, t=3.93), siblings (b=1.30, t=3.61) and adopters (b=0.97, t=2.55) show relatively higher levels of ethnic and cultural awareness overtime, while relationships with their mothers do not have an impact. Results support our conceptualisation that positive socialisation with family members will affect ethnic and cultural awareness in Yi children.
In Yi patriarchic culture, female enjoy a less influential role in traditional Yi families than male. With the father being the head of the family, it makes sense that socialisation with fathers/late fathers have a significant effect on Yi children’s ethnicity development, while mothers do not have the same effect. As for siblings, they are the same age peers embedded in Yi children’s familial system. The positive effect of sibling relationships on Yi children’s ethnic and cultural awareness coincide with existing literature which states that positive peer socialisation results in a stronger sense of ethnicity. Positive socialisation experiences with adopters also matter. As adopters are the primary caregivers of Yi children after they lost their parents, it is logical to assume that their adopters play a significant role in shaping their sense of ethnic and cultural awareness.
Teachers and Classmates Support. Yi children who perceived themselves to receive higher levels of teachers (b=0.50, t=3.13) and classmates support (b=0.36, t=4.69) show a higher score in their ethnic and cultural awareness. Findings, again, demonstrate that positive socialisation experiences in school settings can drive up ethnic and cultural awareness.
Demographics. Male and female Yi children do not differ in their ethnic and cultural awareness.
Yi children who are older at enrollment also shows a statistically significant higher ethnic and cultural awareness score than their younger counterparts (b=0.32, b=3.71). This finding is consistent with the literature which suggests that the sense of ethnicity tends to get stronger with age as children start to explore and identify with their origin. Such finding contradicts our results on the downward trend of Yi children’s ethnic and cultural awareness over time. Additional research shall be conducted to understand the findings.
Correlates of Yi children’s Ethnic and Cultural Awareness與民族和文化意識相關的因素
We also analyse the effects of Yi children’s ethnic and cultural awareness of their academic motivation and behavioural health using cross-sectional data (Wave 7). Academic motivation is measured with the 28-item Academic Motivation Scale, and behavioural health is measured with the 32-item self-designed scale. For more information, please refer to the data access and scale section in the About the Project page on this website. Multiple regression analysis is used to examine the effects of ethnic and cultural awareness on academic motivation and behavioural health, controlling for teacher and classmate support, relationships with father/late father, with mother/late mother, siblings and adopter, and gender and age.
Results show that ethnic and cultural awareness has positive impacts on Yi children’s academic motivation and behavioural health, controlling for other confounding variables. The following details the findings:
Effects on Academic Motivation. Cross-sectional findings show that ethnic and cultural awareness has a positive effect on Yi children’s academic motivation (b=3.76, t=31.59). As for the effects of the other variables: Teacher support has a positive effect on academic motivation (b=1.87, t=4.64), while classmate support has a negative effect (b=-1.46, t=-7.84). Relationship with father/late father shows a positive impact (b=6.15, t=6.42), while relationship with mother/late mother show a negative association (b=-7.16, t=-8.33). For gender, girls show a higher level of academic motivation than boys (b=2.01, t=2.28). Children who are older also show a higher level of academic motivation than their younger counterparts (b=1.03, t=5.23).
研究分析了彝童的民族和文化意識對他們的學習動機和行為健康的影響，分別採用了包含二十八個項目的「學習動機量表」（Academic Motivation Scale）和一個自行設計、包含三十二個項目的量表量度行為健康。如欲了解更多，請參閱「關於本研究」頁面上的「數據與量表」欄目。研究進行了多個迴歸分析以了解民族和文化意識對學習動機和行為健康的影響，並在分析時控制變數，包括老師和同學的支援、與健在或已過身父親的關係、與健在或已過身母親的關係、與兄弟姊妹和收養者的關係以及性別和年齡。以下只採用了第七輪的數據。
Effects on Behavioural Health. Cross-sectional findings show that ethnic and cultural awareness has a positive effect on Yi children’s behavioural health (b=0.15, t=7.28). As for the effects of the other variables: Teacher support has a positive effect (b=0.30, t=6.87), while classmate support has a negative effect (b=-0.1, t=-4.20). Relationship with siblings and adopter show positive impacts (Siblings: b=0.26, t=2.62; Adopter: b=0.54, t=5.27). For gender, girls show a higher level of behavioural health than boys (b=0.59, t=5.94). Children who are older also show a higher level of behavioural health than their younger counterparts (b=0.07, t=2.77).