About Parent / Teacher Influence Studies
Studies have found that family environment has an impact on the endorsement of materialistic values. Parental styles and practices that do not fully meet children’s needs are associated with materialism (Kasser et al., 1995; Williams, Cox, Hedberg & Deci, 2000). Children in families that use socio-oriented communication patterns, which stress harmony among family members and the avoidance of conflict, demonstrate higher levels of materialism (Moschis & Moore, 1979). Children in families that use concept-oriented communication patterns, which encourage independent thinking, demonstrate lower levels of materialism (Moore & Moschis, 1981). Adolescents who communicate less frequently with parents about consumption were more materialistic (Moore & Moschis, 1981).
In the literature, socio-oriented family communication about consumption is measured by the responses to the following five statements (Moschis, Moore, & Smith, 1984):
- My parents want to know what I do with my money.
- My parents tell me I can't buy certain things.
- My parents tell me what products and brands to buy.
- My parents complain when they don't like the things I bought for myself.
- My parents tell me not to buy certain things.
On the other hand, concept-oriented family communication about consumption is measured by the responses to the following five statements (Moschis, Moore, & Smith, 1984):
- My parents said that when you buy something, what matters is whether you like it. What other people think doesn't matter.
- My parents let me make decisions about spending money.
- After I've bought something, my parents would ask me what I think of it.
- My parents think that I can make decisions about what to buy and what not to buy.
- My parents ask me for advice when buying things for the family.
Communication with parents about consumption can be measured by the responses to statements such as:
- I discuss ads with my parents.
- I’d discuss buying things with my parents.
- I’d discuss trendy things with my parents.
- When I go shopping, I would ask my parents for advice.
- I’d go shopping with my parents.
Teachers can also be role models in youths’ daily lives. Communication with teachers about consumption can be measured by the responses to the following two statements:
- I discuss ads with my teachers.
- I’d discuss buying things with my teachers.
- Kasser, T., Ryan R. M., Zax, M., & Sameroff, A. J. (1995). The relations of maternal and social environments to late adolescents’ materialistic and prosocial values. Developmental Psychology, 31, 907-914.
- Moore, R. L., & Moschis, G. P. (1981). The role of family communication in consumer learning. Journal of Communication, 31(4), 42-51.
- Moschis, G. P., & Moore, R. L. (1979). Family communication and consumer socialization. Advances in Consumer Research, 6, 359-363.
- Moschis, G. P., Moore, R. L., & Smith, R. B. (1984). The impact of family communication on adolescent consumer socialization, Advances in Consumer Research, 11, 314–319.
- Williams, G. C., Cox, E. M., Hedberg, V. A., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Extrinsic life goals and health risk behaviors in adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 1756-1771.