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About Media Influence Studies

Materialistic values are frequently found in popular culture, the media, and advertisements. People exposed to materialistic models will be more likely to take on the materialistic values through modeling (Bandura, 1971) and internalization of these values (Ryan & Connell, 1989).

Celebrity worship has become common among young people around the world (Yue & Cheung, 2000) and may stem from a developmental need for identification and intimacy (Josselson, 1991). As adolescents transition to adulthood, celebrity attachments can facilitate the formation of a mature adult identity (Erikson, 1968) as well as influence consumer behavior.


Imitation of idols is measured by the responses to the following four statements:


Social comparison with celebrities on consumption is measured by by the responses to the following two statements:


Another pervasive source of materialistic models is found in advertising messages. Advertisements encourage consumption by using images of attractive and/or famous product users, demonstrating social reward by using the products, and associating the products with wealthy lifestyles (Kasser el at., 2004). Moschis and Moore (1982) conceptualized advertising exposure according to both frequency of watching advertisements and reasons for watching.

Motivation for advertising viewing was measured by the responses to the following seven statements:

These statements were selected and modified from Moschis and Moore’s (1982) study.