Using data of Yi children in cohort 1 (obtained from wave 1 to wave 4, i.e., between the year 2007 and 2009), we find that their academic outcome improves over time. Here, academic development refers to the academic motivation of Yi children and is measured by a 6-item self-deigned teacher-reported instrument. For more instrument information, please refer to the data access and instrument Section in the About the Project Page.
We look at academic motivation because it is associated with educational attainment and upward mobility, which is crucial for Yi children to break their cycle of poverty as well as the economic well-being of Yi community as a whole. Thus, understanding the academic development of Yi children is important.
The graph below shows the academic motivation of Yi children. Higher score means higher level of academic motivation. As illustrated, the academic motivation of Yi children shows a positive change over the years.
Improvements in Academic Motivation Overtime and Contributing Factors學習動機的改善和相關的因素
Longitudinal analysis using multilevel modelling shows a statistically significant improvement in the academic motivation of Yi children from wave 1 to 4. We observe an average of 0.69 unit of increase in their motivation scores across each time wave (b=0.69, t=9.83).
The following discusses the regression findings on the effect of each factor, measured at wave 1, on academic motivation:
Ethnic and Cultural Awareness. Yi children with higher levels of ethnic and cultural awareness show higher levels of academic motivation (b=0.57, t=2.80). Findings support our assumption that ethnic and cultural awareness affects Yi children positive development.
Relationship Quality. Yi children who share a better relationship with their fathers show relatively higher levels of academic motivation (b=0.66, t=2.73), while relationships with other family members (i.e., adopter, mother/late mother, and siblings) do not have an impact. Results support our conceptualisation that relationship with caregivers will affect the academic development of Yi children. Further research is needed to understand why relationship with father has a specific impact on Yi children’s academic motivation.
Maternal and Paternal Status. Both maternal and paternal status do not show any significant effect.
Number of Siblings. Number of siblings is associated with the academic motivation of Yi children.
Demographics. Male and female Yi children do not show any difference in their academic motivation. Yi children who are older at enrollment show a statistically significant higher level of academic motivation than their younger counterparts (b=0.68, b=3.47).