Introduction
The central government of China's Qing dynasty (1644-1911) collected tribute from various regions of the empire to increase its resources and to assert its political authority. Tribute items included live animals, animal products, plants and plant products, as well as manufactured goods. Many of these things were valuable commodities such as tea, pearls, and ginseng. The imperial household consumed tribute items and gave them away as gifts to foreign dignitaries and as rewards to loyal subjects.

This dataset consists of evidence from records of tribute collected in Heilongjiang, located in the extreme northeast and adjacent to the Russian empire. Heilongjiang was known during the Qing Dynasty for the abundant produce from its forests and rivers. Key products of Heilongjiang were animal furs and sturgeon. Indigenous tribes of Heilongjiang provided these and other tribute items to the imperial court throughout the Qing dynasty. As such, the Qing government viewed tribute collection as an important strategy for administering these groups and for monitoring the quantity and quality of Heilongjiang's natural resources.

Individual entries and aggregate graphs of this dataset show that tribute was both routine and subject to many variable conditions. The number and identities of tributaries, the types and quantity of tribute items, and the reciprocation of gifts from the Qing government to the tributaries are all details that can be researched in many different ways. As this dataset grows, it will become an essential resource for understanding the economic, environmental, and political conditions of Heilongjiang during the Qing dynasty.
        Principal Researcher :

        Co-Researchers :
Dr. Loretta KIM, Assistant Professor, Department of History, Hong Kong Baptist University

Mr. Ho-tung Patrick HO, Previous Project Assistant, Department of History, Hong Kong Baptist University
Mr. Lok Yin LAW, Project Assistant, Department of History, Hong Kong Baptist University
Digital and Multimedia Services Section, Hong Kong Baptist University Library
The Digital and Multimedia Services Section of the HKBU Library also held responsible for the platform design and development.
How Does It Work
To facilitate easy understanding and manipulation of this dataset that contains at least 567 sets of entries, five graphs and tables are created. They are:

   Change of Gift Types
   Gift Quantities of Reign Periods
   Timeline of Givers
   Distribution of Locations
   Use of References

For most graphs, you can change the parameters and generate new graphs based on various circumstances. This can be done in the Refine Your Search box.
You can also retrieve a full list of data based on the parameters that you have set. This can be done by clicking the icon.
Questions and Answers

   The site is not displaying properly on my computer, what can I do?

      You may need to upgrade your browser. The site requires Chrome 11 or higher, Firefox 3 or higher, Safari 4 or higher, and IE 9.

   Who can I contact to learn more about this dataset?

      Feel free to email the Digital and Multimedia Services Section of the HKBU Library at libms@hkbu.edu.hk. We will get back to you as soon as we can. We will also forward
      your questions to the researchers if necessary.

   Can I make use of this dataset or corresponding charts for the purpose of teaching, learning, or further research?

      Please do! Please cite this website and credit the principal researcher, Dr. Loretta Kim.

   Can I get the full dataset in an excel format for the purpose of teaching, learning, or further research?

      Please email us with a description of how you will use this data. We will consider it case by case.

   Can I link to the pages of "Tribute Data Curation"?

      You are more than welcome!